Currently, medical endoscopes have been applied in various departments of hospitals, covering simple internal organ examinations to interventional treatments. Endoscopic minimally invasive technology has become an indispensable key technology for the diagnosis and treatment of digestive, respiratory, urinary, ENT and other systemic diseases. However, there are still some problems in the use of medical endoscopes, such as limited angle adjustment, fragile structure, poor imaging quality, complex structure, and defective lighting sources, which have hindered the further development of medical endoscope instruments. Technicians have conducted research and analysis on the above problems and made improvements on the mechanical structure and imaging technology of medical endoscopes. The main improvements on the mechanical structure of medical endoscopes are as follows: improve the traditional endoscope operation part, and improve the catheter insertion part of the endoscope.
As doctors need to send the endoscope instruments into the body through the patient's organ opening for examination, there are problems such as poor angle adjustment and smoothness when manipulating the endoscope to bend the catheter. To address the capsule endoscope motion control issue, a turning device has been proposed to manipulate the capsule of the rope system. The device includes three linear actuators, a flexible thin rope, and a retractable capsule base. The device has a soft tube with three channels for easy insertion of rotation mechanisms and illumination fibers. In the rotation mechanism channel, the doctor can control the actuator via the handle and change the length and speed of the wire rope according to specific needs. When it is necessary to fix the angle of the catheter, the bending degree of the main tube can be controlled to achieve any angle of 360 degrees, reducing the probability of failure in the internal structure of medical endoscopes.
Traditional medical endoscopes require doctors to control twisting and feeding with both hands, in order to reduce the harm to patients caused by doctors' misoperation. To simplify the operation of the endoscope, robot-assisted flexible endoscopy products that can be controlled with one hand have been developed. The endoscope system is composed of an endoscope holder, manipulator, and main controller. Catheter rotation is achieved by rotating the main shaft of the endoscope holder, and axial insertion-retraction is completed by the front and back movement of the manipulator. Doctors can control the movement of the lens by maneuvering, rotating, and expanding the main controller handle.
An injection needle insertion drive and a drug injection part have been added to the traditional medical endoscope, using the pressure of hydraulic or electromagnetic force to move the piston and deliver the medicine to the patient's lesion, solving the difficulty of injecting drugs into the patient's lesion caused by the large space of the injection needle chamber in traditional medical endoscope surgery, significantly improving the accuracy and convenience of drug injection.
The researchers proposed a new endoscope instrument with a small scan volume, which can be used for angle changes. The endoscope mainly consists of a manipulator and an image sensor. The image signal obtained through the image sensor can be input to the motor control board. The inverse kinematic calculation of the motor control board converts the image signal into joint angle values, so that each axis can be positioned according to these values, forming a closed-loop feedback, which can accurately control the rotation angle while allowing the endoscope to obtain sufficient scanning angle in a small space.